Sri Jiva Goswami lists several properties of the ātman in the Paramātma Sandarbha. Pertinent to this article are its qualities of knowership and experiential capacity.
The ātman has the capacity to know. The mind and intelligence, being inert, cannot know. At the same time, the ātman cannot understand or process information. It has to rely on the mind to do so.
Cognition can only occur when the ātman is combined with the mind.
Similarly, the ātman has the capacity to experience, but it cannot experience anything without the mind.
Only when combined with the mind can the ātman experience anything.
The ātman by itself consists only of potentialities- potentialities of knowing, experiencing and acting. It cannot store any knowledge. Some modern sects of Caitanya Vaisnavism mistakenly think that knowledge, i.e. content or information, is intrinsic to the ātman. They posit that Vedic knowledge inheres in the ātman. This notion fundamentally contradicts Sri Jiva Goswami’s explanation of the properties of the ātman. Information is stored in the citta, not in the ātman. In fact, every experience and every cognition requires, and occurs in the mind.
The ātman is the name given to an eternal being that possesses the śakti of consciousness. The ātman sets the mind into motion by infusing it with consciousness. This can be understood by analogy with the battery of a car. The battery energizes the car, but all the movements happen in the parts of car and have no bearing on the battery. The battery has the potential to cause movements etc., but that potential manifests only when it is linked to a car. The ātman is something like the battery in relation to the manas, buddhi and citta.