Pradhāna is the unmanifest state consisting of the three guṇas in a neutralized state.
The word ‘anādi’ is a simple word. Yet, in recent decades, much confusion has surrounded it owing to novel interpretations offered for it by some modern sects of Caitanya Vaiṣṇavism. Here we examine what it means according to our ācāryas like Śrī Jīva Goswami and Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravarti. […]
We examined the concept of ahaṅkāra in an earlier post. We saw how ahaṅkāra is at the very source of all suffering. We are sentient beings who fundamentally are free from all suffering. But ahaṅkāra, the misidentification with the body, ensures that we consider the body’s experiences as […]
An essential part of the Sāṅkhya-kārikā of Iśwara Kṛṣṇa is the discussion of how prakṛti undergoes transformations which result in the material world. In this system, effects, which are the next step in the transformation, are present in a potential or unmanifest state in their cause. This is […]
The concept of the gunas of prakrti is unique to Indian philosophy, and an important contribution of the Sāṅkhya school.
As discussed in a previous article, the four topics of the Bhāgavata’s catuḥśloki are jñāna, vijñāna, bhakti and prema. The first of the catuḥśloki gives jñāna, while the second gives vijñāna. Śrī Jīva Goswami analyzes the second verse in Anuccheda 96 of the Bhagavat Sandarbha, which goes as […]
The Brahmavadīs claim that Brahman alone is real, and the material world as well as Vaikuṇṭha are unreal or illusory. They liken the material world to a dream, with no reality to it. Śrī Jīva Goswami refutes this view in Anuccheda 23 of the Bhagavat Sandarbha by establishing […]
In a previous post, we examined Śrī Jīva’s explanation of māyā in which he divided māyā into two divisions, jīva-māyā and guṇa-māyā. Jīva-māyā is Durgā, and guṇa-māyā refers to inert prakṛti. Questions were raised about whether it is really Śrī Jīva’s view that jīva-māyā is a conscious entity, […]
Śrī Jīva Goswami examines the meaning of māyā in Bhagavat Sandarbha Anuccheda 18. He gives his own unique explanation of māyā, which we examine here.
The Advaitavādīs consider Bhagavān’s body to be a product of māyā. Vidyāraṇya Swami states in his work Pañcādaśī: māyākhyāyāḥ kāma-dhenor vatsau jīveśvarāv ubhau yathecchaṁ pibatāṁ dvaitaṁ tattvam advaitam eva hi: Both jīva and īśvara are the two calves of māyā, the cow that grants all desires. Let them […]
The reason for suffering is avidyā, and it is the beginningless cause of the ātmā’s existence in the material world. Without understanding the problem, it is not possible to solve it. Here we provide definitions of avidyā, and also define the terms that are the consequences/products of avidyā. […]
There is the notion in some bhakti sects that the material world is a perverted reflection of the spiritual world.