Category: bhāva

The elements of bhakti rasa

Here we revisit the definition of bhakti rasa and explanations of the terms vibhāva, anubhāva, vyabhicārī and sāttvika bhāvas, but this time as given by Sri Rupa Goswami in the Bhakti rasamṛta Sindhu. Definition of bhakti rasa Sri Rupa Goswami defines bhakti rasa (2.1.5) as follows: vibhāvair anubhāvaiḥ […]

The definition of rasa, part II

Continuing our discussion of rasa, we now examine vyabhicāri bhāva, which is also called sañcari bhāva. The word vyabhicāri = vi+abhi+car (car is a verbal root or dhātu meaning ‘move’). The definition of this bhāva is as follows: viśeṣeṇa abhimukhena caritam śilam yasya sa vyabhicāri: [that bhāva] which […]

The principles of vraja-bhakti

There is a beautiful kārikā by Śrī Śrīnāth Cakravarti which captures the principles of vraja-bhakti and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s mood. We examine this kārikā below. ārādhyo bhagavān vrajeṣa tanayaḥ tad-dhāma vṛndāvanam ramyā kācit upāsanā vraja vadhu vargeṇa ya kalpitā Śrīmad Bhāgavatam pramāṇam amalam prema pumartho mahān Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhor matamidam […]

The rāsa līlā is to be understood in its vyañjanā meaning. Part 1

In Sanskrit kāvya, words have three kinds of meaning. Kavi-karṇapūra’s Alaṅkāra-kaustubha describes these meanings in detail 1. They are abhidhā-vṛtti, lakṣaṇā-vṛtti and vyañjanā-vṛtti. The meanings of these words are best understood through an example. Consider the words: gaṅgāyāṁ ghoṣaḥ. The abhidhā or primary meaning of these words is […]

Uttama bhaktas are very rare among both muktas and siddhas

Rupa Goswami quotes the following verse from the sixth canto of the भागवतम् in भक्तिरसामृत सिंधु 1.2.52: मुक्तानाम् अपि सिद्धानां नारायणपरायणः| सुदुर्लभः प्रशान्तात्मा कोटीषु अपि महामुनेः|| muktānām api siddhānāṁ nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇaḥ su-durlabhaḥ praśāntātmā koṭiṣv api mahā-mune Jiva Goswami helps us translate this verse by defining the terms in it. […]