Śrī Jīva Goswami’s commentary on the definition of uttamā bhakti, part II

I continue translating Śrī Jīva Goswami’s commentary on the definition of uttamā bhakti given in the Bhakti rasāmṛta sindhu by Śrī Rūpa Goswami. In the first article, I examined the meaning of kṛṣṇānuśīlanam.

Śrī Jīva writes:

kṛṣṇa-śabdaś cātra svayaṁbhagavataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇasya tad-rūpāṇāṁ cānyeṣām api grāhakaḥ | tāratamyaṁ cāgre vivecanīyam |

[In kṛṣṇānuśīlanam] and the word “kṛṣṇa” refers to Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself, and also to His other forms. The hierarchy of these forms will be discussed later on.

The meaning of the word ānukūlyena

Now he justifies the need for the word ‘ānukūlyena’:

tatra bhakti-mātratva-siddhy-arthaṁ viśeṣaṇam ānukūlyeneti | prātikūlye bhaktitvāprasiddheḥ | ānukūlyaṁ cāsminn uddeśyāya śrī-kṛṣṇāya rocamānā pravṛttiḥ | prātikūlyaṁ tu tad-viparītaṁ jñeyam |

There, the word ‘ānukūlyena’ meaning ‘with a favorable disposition’, is used as a qualifier for the purpose of limiting the definition only to that which is referred to by the term “bhakti”. [Actions while maintaining] an unfavorable disposition are not considered to fall under bhakti. And the word ānukūlya consists of a tendency to please Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is the subject [uddeśya]. prātikūlya is to be understood as opposite of that.

As a reminder, the compound word uttamā-bhakti is being defined here. Of this, the term “bhakti” becomes specifically defined by the viśeṣaṇa “ānukūlya”. If the word ānukūlya is absent, then bhakti cannot be said to exist. The reader may recall that kṛṣṇānuśīlanam means actions related to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, which can be inimical also, like those of the asuras. The asuras do not do bhakti!

As an aside, Śrī Jīva does not make it clear what the term “ānukūlyena” is qualifying here, although he uses the word ‘tatra’ to begin this section, which likely refers to the word anuśīlanam. Śrī Viśvanātha’s commentary suggests that the viśeṣya here is anuśīlanam. Śrī Viśvanātha Cakravarti also notes that the above definition (śrī-kṛṣṇāya rocamānā pravṛttiḥ) could have the defects of avyāpti and ativyāpti. So he redefines ānukūlya as prātikūlya-śūnyatvam: the absence of prātikūlya [tatrātivyāpti-vyāpti-vāraṇāyānukūlyaṁ nāma prātikūlya-śūnyatvam eva vivakṣaṇīyam].

Śrī Jīva Goswami now explains that that ānukūlya is a viśeṣaṇa, and not an upalakṣaṇa:

tṛtīyā ceyaṁ viśeṣaṇa eva, na tūpalakṣaṇe | tataś ca yathā śastriṇaḥ samānayety ukte śastrāṇām api samānayanaṁ prasajyate, tathānukūlyasyāpi bhaktitva-vidhānam | na tu śastriṇo bhojayety atra śastrāṇām abhojanavat tad-avidhānam |

The instrumental case [for ānukūlya] is used in the sense of a viśeṣaṇa and not upalakṣaṇa [i.e. it is always present]. Because of this, as in the statement “bring the warriors”, the bringing of their weapons is also implied, ānukūlya is also to be considered to be bhakti. Unlike the statement “feed the warriors”, where their weapons are obviously not to be fed, bhakti is never not implied by the term ānukūlya.

ānukūlya is always present where bhakti is present, just as weapons are always present when warriors are present.

The need for the word anuśīlanam

Now he considers an objection:

nanv ānukūlyaṁ bhaktir ity evāstām | tataś ca rājāyaṁ gacchatīty atra rāja-padena tat-parikarāṇāṁ grahaṇaṁ syāt |

Then let bhakti be defined as “ānukūlyaṁ” alone [“a favorable disposition”]. [This definition will suffice] just as how, in the statement, “this king goes”, the word “king” includes his associates as well.

The objection is that ānukūlyaṁ would automatically include kṛṣṇānuśīlanam, because a favorable disposition will obviously manifest in actions related to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Just as a king does not walk alone, ānukūlya is never alone. So what is the need for including the term kṛṣṇānuśīlanam in the definition of bhakti? He responds:

satyaṁ, tathāpi dhātv-artha-bhedānāṁ spaṣṭā pratipattir na syād iti dhātv-artha-mātra-grahaṇāyānuśīlana-padam upādīyate |

It is true [that bhakti can be defined as ānukūlyaṁ], even so, the different verb meanings [that are accommodated in anuśīlana] would not be clearly ascertained. The word “anuśīlana” is provided for accommodating the general sense of a verb meaning [i.e. all actions].

He now justifies the need for the prefix ‘anu’ in ‘anuśīlana’:

anv iti padaṁ cānukūlye jāte muhur eva śīlanaṁ syād ity abhiprāyeṇa kṛtam | tad etat svarūpa-lakṣaṇam |

And the prefix ‘anu’ is added to indicate that, when ānukūlya is developed, activities are to be repeatedly performed. This is the svarūpa-lakṣaṇa or intrinsic characteristic of uttamā bhakti.


The svarūpa-lakṣaṇa or intrinsic characteristic of uttamā bhakti is ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānuśīlanam

ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānuśīlanam means actions related to Śrī Kṛṣṇa with a favorable disposition

ānukūlya is defined as an absence of prātikulya, i.e. a lack of an unfavorable disposition

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