Other equivalent definitions of उत्तमा भक्ति (uttamā bhakti)

Rupa Goswami goes on to point out in his master piece भक्ति रसामृत सिंधु (Bhakti rasāmṛta sindhu) that उत्तमा भक्ति (uttamā bhakti) is also defined equivalently in other places in the scriptures. For example, there is the famous verse from नारद पंचरात्र: सर्वोपाधि विनिर्मुक्तम् तत्परत्वेन निर्मलम् हृषीकेन हृषिकेश […]

Rupa Goswami defines उत्तमा भक्ति (uttamā bhakti), Part III

Continuing our discussion of the तटस्थ लक्षणम् (taṭastha lakṣaṇam) from a previous post, we now explore the words ज्ञान कर्माद्यनावृतम् (jñāna karmādy anāvṛtam) in this article. The word anāvṛtam means ‘not covered’, that is, uttamā bhakti is uncovered by jñāna and karma. Because the words jñāna and karma are in common usage these […]

Rupa Goswami defines उत्तमा भक्ति (uttamā bhakti), Part II

In a previous post, we examined the definition of uttamā bhakti and saw that स्वरूप लक्षणम् (svarūpa lakṣaṇam) = अानुकूल्येन कृष्णानुशीलनम् (ānukulyena kṛṣṇānuśīlanam) or the essence of uttamā bhakti = continuous favorable service to Kṛṣṇa or persons related to him. Here we examine the rest of the two qualifiers, […]

Rupa Goswami defines उत्तमा भक्ति (uttamā bhakti), Part I

The genius of Rupa Goswami (1489–1564) was to compose the book भक्ति रसामृत सिंधु (Bhakti rasāmṛta sindhu) which examines the psychology of Kṛṣṇa’s devotees. He starts the book with a definition of उत्तमा भक्ति (uttamā bhakti), which came to embody the essence of all the scriptures for the Caitanya […]